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INCLUSIONS IN CONTINUOUS CASTING OF STEEL
Continuous casting - Wikipedia

Continuous casting, also called strand casting, is the process whereby molten metal is solidified into a "semifinished" billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in the finishing mills. Prior to the introduction of continuous casting in the 1950s, steel was poured into stationary molds to form ingots.Since then, "continuous casting" has evolved to achieve improved yield, quality ...

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Steel Cleanliness: Inclusions in Steel S

Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel) and ASTM E 2142-08 (Standard Test Methods for Rating and Classifying Inclusions in Steel Using the Scanning Electron Microscope). Where Do Inclusions Come From? The steelmaking process (tap, ladle treatment and continuous casting) is the source for most nonmetallic inclusions (Fig. 1),

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Inclusions in continuous casting of steel | Request PDF

Jun 30, 2020· This paper first reviews the sources of inclusions in continuous casting of steel including both indigenous and exogenous inclusions, focusing on …

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INCLUSIONS IN CONTINUOUS CASTING OF STEEL

12) The rest of this report is an extensive review on inclusions in steel continuous casting, their sources, morphology, formation mechanisms, detection methods, and the effect of various continuous casting operations. 2. Inclusions in Steel Non-metallic inclusions in steel are termed as indigenous inclusions and exogenous inclusions

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Inclusions In Continuous Casting Of Steel

Inclusions In Continuous Casting Of Steel Thank you very much for downloading inclusions in continuous casting of steel. As you may know, people have look numerous times for their chosen books like this inclusions in continuous casting of steel, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of tea in the afternoon ...

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Inclusion Removal by Bubble Flotation in Continuous ...

Fig.1 Inclusions around bubble shape domain in the ingot steel (a,b,c) [8] and in the continuous casting steel [9] Fig.2 Inclusion sliver in the longitudinal section of a sheet product [9], and typical pencil blister defect on a steel sheet [10]. Bubble Size in Molten Steel Gas can be injected into the molten steel by various devices, such as ...

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Inclusion evolution during refining and continuous casting ...

The formation and characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in 316L stainless steel produced by the AOD (argon oxygen decarburization)–ladle furnace–continuous casting process were investigated. The morphology and composition of inclusions changed significantly during the refining and casting …

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CiteSeerX — 1 INCLUSIONS IN CONTINUOUS CASTING OF STEEL

CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper first reviews the sources of inclusions in continuous casting of steel including both indigenous and exogenous inclusions, focusing on reoxidation, slag entrainment, lining erosion and inclusion agglomeration on linings. Secondly, the resulting defects in continuous cast steel products are reviewed, such as ...

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Inclusion in cast steel | Refractory | Scanning Electron ...

This paper first reviews the sources of inclusi ons in continuous casting of steel including both indigenous and exogenous inclusions, focusing on reoxidation, slag entrainment, lining erosion and inclusion agglomeration on linings. Secondly, the resulting defects in continuous cast steel products are reviewed, such as flange cracked cans, slag spot s, and line defects on the surface of rolled ...

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Influence of the chemical composition on steel casting ...

Jan 01, 2017· 1. Introduction. The accurate treatment of steel in ladle for the proper control of deoxidation and inclusions in the products is essential to produce billets from the continuous casting process , .The formation of liquid inclusion after the secondary refining is considered a precondition for the steady flow of liquid metal through the small diameter nozzles of the continuous caster.

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Analysis of Crack in Steel Casting - Meetyou Carbide

Jun 28, 2020· The endogenetic inclusions are mainly produced in the following situations: ① in the smelting process, the deoxidized products are not completely eliminated, or the temperature drops during the pouring process, and the deoxidized products generated by the continuous reaction are too late to float and remain in the molten steel, some of them ...

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Inclusion removal by bubble flotation in a continuous ...

inclusions by bubbles duringthe continuous casting of steel. First, the attachment p robability of inclusions on abubble surface is investigated based on fundamental fluid flowsimulations, incorpo-rating the turbulent inclusion trajectory and sliding time of each individual inclusion alongthe bubble surface as afunction of particle and bubble ...

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Detection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Centrifugal ...

In the current study, automated particle analysis was employed to detect non-metallic inclusions in steel during a centrifugal continuous casting process of a high-strength low alloy steel. The morphology, composition, size, area fraction, amount, and spatial distribution of inclusions in steel were obtained.

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Steel - Continuous casting | Britannica

Steel - Steel - Continuous casting: About 55 percent of the world’s liquid steel production is solidified in continuous casting processes, the most widely used of which feeds liquid steel continuously into a short, water-cooled vertical copper mold and, at the same time, continuously withdraws the frozen shell, including the liquid steel it contains.

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Steel - Removing oxygen | Britannica

Steel - Steel - Removing oxygen: As the carbon level is lowered in liquid steel, the level of dissolved oxygen theoretically increases according to the relationship %C × %O = 0.0025. This means that, for instance, a steel with 0.1 percent carbon, at equilibrium, contains about 0.025 percent, or 250 parts per million, dissolved oxygen. The level of dissolved oxygen in liquid steel must be ...

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The Continuous Casting ofStainless Steels

Stainless steel has been continuously cast for more than four decadesI,The first major installation in North America for the continuous casting of stainless-steelslabs was established in the early 1950's at Atlas Steel in Canada'. Over the years, the continuous-castingprocess for the production of steel billets, blooms, and slabs has emerged

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SUBMERGED ENTRY NOZZLE CLOGGING DURING …

Keywords: continuous casting, non-metallic inclusions, SEN (submerged entry nozzle) clogging, reoxidation of steel melt INTRODUCTION Nozzle clogging is a common problem in the pro-duction of continuously cast Al-killed steels [1–4]. Clogging occurs when solid inclusions are present in molten steel at casting temperatures. Steels with in-

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Effect of continuous casting speed on mold surface flow ...

Apr 22, 2018· Abstract: For the control of surface defects in interstitial-free (IF) steel, quantitative metallographic analyses of near-surface inclusions and surface liquid flow detection via the nail-board tipping method were conducted.The results show that, at casting speeds of 0.8 and 1.0 m/min, a thin liquid mold flux layer forms and non-uniform floating of argon bubbles occurs, inducing the ...

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What Are Inclusions in Steel? - wiseGEEK

Oct 20, 2020· Exogenous inclusions in steel can come from any number of sources but are usually excess slag or bits of foreign matter that flake or break off from one of the pieces of equipment used in the casting process. Lining from the ladle, bits of the mold used to form the steel, and particles of the thermal refractory material used in furnace ...

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(PDF) Inclusion behaviour in aluminium-killed steel during ...

Jan 31, 2018· The liquid steel flow and the particle transport of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid domain inside the strand of a continuous steel casting system are numerically investigated.

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Measures to Improve Oxide Cleanness in Continuous Casting

ladle treatment and vacuum process. They have to be maintained during continuous casting. Nevertheless steel products contain impurities which locally do harm to sensitive applications. When talking about cleanness of steel, oxide inclusions are the main point of discussion. The majority of oxide particles formed in the process line are able to

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Lecture 34 Advances in Continuous Casting of Steel

inclusions during the process of continuous casting. Thus, a change in tundish design would be required. In other modification we improve the upst ream steelmaking facility so that inclusion content in steel are within the tolerance limit. One may consider other …

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Melting, Remelting, and Casting for Clean Steel

Melting, Remelting, and Casting for Clean Steel John Campbell The control of the metallurgy of steels is now highly developed. This is in contrast to the casting techniques for steels. Although continuous casting is generally conducted well, current ingot casting techniques are poor, unnecessarily introducing masses of oxides. For

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Flow Dynamics and Inclusion Transport in Continuous ...

and efficiency of inclusion particle removal in the process of continuous casting of steel slabs. Inclusion-related defects depend greatly on the flow dynamics in the mold pool, in addition to motion of the inclusions, collisions with other inclusions and bubbles, entrapment at the

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Defects in Continuous Cast Steels – IspatGuru

Defects in Continuous Cast Steels. Continuous casting (CC) is the process which converts liquid steel into a solid product mainly in the form of slab (either thick or thin), bloom or billets. It is one of progressive steel making technologies which produces a cast product of a desired cross section in indefinite length.

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Transient Behavior of Inclusions during Reoxidation of Si ...

In the current study, steel samples in continuous casting tundish were taken at every 5–10 minutes to investigate the reoxidation behavior and inclusions in Si-killed stainless steel in the tundish during a casting sequence with three heats. Contours were employed to …

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Detection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Steel Continuous ...

DOI: 10.1007/s11663-014-0042-y Corpus ID: 15578374. Detection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Steel Continuous Casting Billets @article{Ren2014DetectionON, title={Detection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Steel Continuous Casting Billets}, author={Ying Ren and Yufeng Wang and S. Li and L. Zhang and X. Zuo and S. Lekakh and K. Peaslee}, journal={Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B}, year ...

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[PDF] Continuous Casting of Steel | Semantic Scholar

Apr 10, 2014· Continuous casting is used to solidify most of the 750 million tons of steel produced in the world every year. Like most commercial processes, continuous casting involves many complex interacting phenomena. Most previous advances have been based on empirical knowledge gained from experimentation with the process. To further optimize the design and improve the continuous casting …

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Detection of Non-metallic Inclusions in 12Mn Steel ...

12MN STEEL; CONTINUOUS CASTING; ROUND BILLETS INTRODUCTION Non-metallic inclusions’ characterization plays a crucial role in making clean steel. Inclusions in the final product are harmful to the quality of steel products [1, 2]. To obtain high-performance steel, the number of the inclusions have to be diminished. Generally speaking, non-metallic

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An Overview of Steel Cleanliness From an Industry Perspective

SD mode: Minimum inclusion size of 1.5 µm and step size of 1.2 µm for routine samples. HD mode: Minimum inclusion detection limit of 1 µm and a step size of 1 µm. This mode is used in special cases where solidification inclusions are very important or when the inclusion density in the steel is very low.

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Inclusions, lining materials and nozzle clogging during ...

The clogging of the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN) during billet continuous casting of mid-carbon steel is studied. Clogging materials and inclusions in steel samples taken at ladles, tundish and billets are investigated. The total oxygen on the whole section of the billet is measured.

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Continuous Casting of Steel: Basic Principles

Enhances oxide inclusion separation. Provides a continuous flow of liquid steel to the mold during ladle exchanges. Maintains a steady metal height above the nozzles to the molds, thereby keeping steel flow constant and hence casting speed constant as well (for an open-pouring metering system). Provides more stable stream patterns to the mold(s ...

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Macro Inclusions during Continuous Casting - Metal and ...

Sep 23, 2004· Inclusions found on these steel qualities reveal high levels of alumina (58-64%), reasonable lime contents (15-22%), low silica and MgO and traces of sodium, MnO and Ti2O. It is clear that casting powder is involved due to the sodium present (± …

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